Colonial and Arnold Theories

The following references support a colonial origin of Newport's Old Stone Mill. More specifically, many of these references support the theory that Benedict Arnold (1615-1678), Governor of Newport, Rhode Island, commissioned the building of the Tower as a windmill. Arnold refers to the Tower in his will as "my stonebuilt-windmill." The architectural form of the Tower resembles a windmill standing in Chesterton, England, where Arnold was born.



Benedict Arnold's Will, 1678, Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI. *17th-century copy of the original will. Many historians cite Arnold's Will as the first written reference to the Old Stone Mill.


Brigham, Herbert Olin. The Old Stone Mill. Newport: Franklin Press, 1948. (Reprint 1955).


Brooks, Charles T. The Controversy Touching the Old Stone Mill. Newport, RI., 1851. *Privately published by Brooks, the work includes prints of the Old Stone Mill and the Chesterton Windmill, England.


Coggeshall, Charles P. "Some Old Rhode Island Grist Mills." Newport History: Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society, no. 39 (January 1922): 1-21.


Godfrey, William S. "The 1948 Excavation at the Old Stone Mill in Newport, R. I." Report to Preservation Society of Newport County, R. I., 1948. Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI.


---------- "The Newport Puzzle." Archaeology 2 (Autumn 1949): 146-149.


---------- "Newport Tower II." Archaeology 3 (Summer 1950): 82-86.


Godfrey, William S. "The Newport Tower, a reply to Mr. Pohl." Archaeology 4 (1951): 54-56. *Refer to Pohl, Frederick. "The Newport Tower: An Answer to Mr. Godfrey." Archaeology 3 (Autumn 1950): 183-184. Listed in the Norse Theory section.


---------- "The Archaeology of the Old Stone Mill in Newport, R. I." American Antiquity 17 (Oct. 1951): 120-129.


---------- "Digging a Tower and Laying a Ghost." Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1952.


---------- "Answer to Plaster under the Newport Tower." American Antiquity 19, no. 3 (January 1954): 275-279. *Refer to Pohl, Frederick, "Plaster under the Newport Tower," American Antiquity 19, no. 3 (January 1954): 275-277, listed in the Norse Theory section.


---------- "Vikings in America, Theories & Evidence." American Anthropologist 57, no. 1 (February 1955).


Hattendorf, Ingrid M. "From the Collection: William S. Godfrey's Old Stone Mill Archaeological Collection." Newport History: Journal of the Newport Historical Society 68, part 2, no. 235 (1997): 109-111.


Hertz, Johs. "Round Church or Windmill? New Light on the Newport Tower." Newport History: Journal of the Newport Historical Society 68, part 2, no. 235 (1997): 55-91. *Pages 92-97 include an appendix: Carbon-14 dating of the Newport Tower.


Landry, Janine. "Test Refutes Viking Tie to Mill," Newport Daily News, 4 December 1995, sec. C1, 5.


Leland, Waldo G. "Stone Mill or Tower, Newport, R. I." Report by the National Park Service Advisory Board, 1944. Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI.


Mason, George Champlin. "The Old Stone Mill at Newport." Magazine of American History 3 (1879), 541-549. And in Reminiscences of Newport, ch. 52, 392-407. Newport: Charles E. Hammett, Jr., 1884.


Moriarty, Andrews G. "Memoranda and Documents, Newport's Old Stone Mill." Reprinted from The New England Quarterly 12, no.1 (March 1946): 111-113. *A review of Frederick J. Pohl's "Was the Newport TowerStanding in 1632?" The New England Quarterly 18, no. 4 (December 1945): 501-506, listed in the Norse Theory section.


---------- "Newport's Old Stone Mill." The New England Quarterly 19 (June 1946): 111-114.


Morrison, Samuel Eliot. The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages A.D. 500-1600, 37-38, 73-75, 490. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.


"Newport: Historical and Social." Harper's New Monthly Magazine 9, no. 51 (August 1854): 314-315. 


Ogden, Derek. "Mystery of Tower Was Solved in '49," Newport Daily News, 3 February 1996.


---------- "Fireplaces Are Common in Tower Windmills," Newport Daily News, 23-24 March 1996.


Palfrey, John Gorham. History of New England. Vol. 1, 56-59, Boston:Little, Brown, & Co., 1858. *Includes a print of the Chesterton Windmill, England, and the Newport Tower.


Pendry, Steven R. "The Newport Tower: Revisiting New England's Fantastic Archaeology." In Archaeology of Eastern North America: Papers in Honor of Stephen Williams, edited by James B. Stoltman, 298-310. Archaeology Report no. 25, Jackson, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, 1993.


Phelan, Nick. "Stone Tower Myth Crumbles," Newport Daily News, 23 September 1993, sec. A1, 10.


Shelton, F. H. "More Light on the Old Mill at Newport." Newport History: Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society, no. 21 (January 1917): 3-23.


Snydacker, Daniel. "Reports on Origin of Old Stone Tower to be Published in Society Newsletter," Newport Daily News, 27 February 1996: A7.


Terry, Reverend Roderick, DD "The First European Visitors to Nar-ragansett Bay." Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society, no. 22 (April 1917): 1-5.


"Will of Governor Benedict Arnold." Rhode Island Historical Magazine 6 (1885-86): 20-38.


Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical History of America. Vol. I, part I. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1884-1889.